Skin tone is made up of hemoglobin, melanin and carotene. Haemoglobin in the blood transmit’s the color of red to everybody’s skin. It becomes somewhat visible as it can be viewed through the translucency of skin. This holds true for all people of any race, with any skin color.
The amount of blue or yellow undertone determines a person’s seasonal category. These two colors correlate, imprecisely, to melanin and carotene which do not give off true blue and yellow colors. These two colors, in fact, do not turn the skin blue or yellow.
When it is the primary pigment, melanin produces brown skin tones. When mixed more with reds (hemoglobin) and yellows (carotene) it produces grays and blue-grays. When carotene dominates the skin tone, it produces so-called yellow undertones that we call “golden” or “peach” skin tones.
- Winter and Summer are said to be "cool" blue-based palettes. This means that a person who is a Winter should wear colors that have blue undertones. Winters take on an intense appearance because their skin tones contrast strongly with their hair and eye colors. Winters, according to season theory, need to dress in equally strongly contrasting and intense colors. If a Winter neglects to dress in such strongly contrasting colors, they will appear washed out.
- Summer is the other "cool," or blue-based palette. This means that a person who is a Summer should wear colors that have blue undertones. Summers appear “softer” and less intense because their skin tone has a milder contrast with their eye and hair color. This dictates that they dress in milder contrasts and softer colors. Dressing in the appropriate colors will allow them to look harmonious and gentle. Should they dress in sharp contrasts, they will look “overpowered.”
- Spring and Autumn are the two "warm" palettes. This suggests that a Spring should wear colors with a yellow undertone. Spring’s colors are bright, intense, and sometimes “playful.”
- Autumn is the other "warm" or yellow-based palette. Like Springs, Autumn should wear colors with yellow undertones, but unlike Spring, the colors will be soft and deep (dark). Some of the autumn colors are brick, coffee, caramel, beige, tomato red and forest green.